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Featured article / Natural Attenuation in Source Zone and Groundwater Plume - Bemidji Crude Oil Spill
in situ remediation technology that can be applied to groundwater or soils and many different contaminants. It is a chemical technology where strong oxidants are injected or mechanically mixed into the treatment zone to promote destructive abiotic degradation reactions. It is commonly used, applicable to many hydrogeologic settings, and relies on well-known technologies such as injection and mixing. Because of stoichiometry and mass balance limitations, it may be inefficient when applied to treat free-phase (i.e., free-product or non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)) zones.
In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a mature technology for remediation of contaminated groundwater, including both source zones and contaminant plumes. ISCO involves the introduction of chemical oxidants into the subsurface to react with contaminants to convert them into less harmful products. Commonly used oxidants include Fenton’s reagent, ozone, potassium permanganate, and sodium persulfate.
Treatment objectives for ISCO have ranged from reducing contaminant mass within a source zone to meeting maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) in a plume. The effectiveness of ISCO varies as it is highly dependent on proper site characterization, ISCO design considerations, and oxidant delivery system design.
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